The Park Chung Hee Era: The Transformation of South Korea



❴Read❵ ➪ The Park Chung Hee Era: The Transformation of South Korea Author Byung-Kook Kim – E17streets4all.co.uk In South Korea was mired in poverty By it had a powerful industrial economy and a vibrant civil society in the making, which would lead to a democratic breakthrough eight years later The transformat InSouth Korea was mired in poverty Byit had Chung Hee ePUB ☆ a powerful industrial economy and a vibrant civil society in the making, which would lead to a democratic breakthrough eight years later The transformation took place during the years of Park Chung Hee s presidency Park seized power in a coup inand ruled as a virtual dictator until his assassination in OctoberHe is credited with modernizing South Korea, but at a huge political and social costSouth Korea s political landscape under Park defies easy categorization The state was predatory yet technocratic, reform minded yet quick The Park Kindle - to crack down on dissidents in the name of political order The nation was balanced uneasily between opposition forces calling for democratic reforms and the Park government s obsession with economic growth The chaebol a powerful conglomerate of multinationals based in South Korea received massive government support to pioneer new growth industries, even as a nationwide campaign of economic shock therapy interest hikes, devaluation, and wage cuts met strong public resistance and caused considerable hardshipThis landmark volume examines South Korea s era of development as a study in the complex politics of modernization Drawing Park Chung Hee eBook ✓ on an extraordinary range of sources in both English and Korean, these essays recover and contextualize many of the ambiguities in South Korea s trajectory from poverty to a sustainable high rate of economic growth.The Park Chung Hee Era: The Transformation of South Korea

Is a well known author, some of his Chung Hee ePUB ☆ books are a fascination for readers like in the The Park Chung Hee Era: The Transformation of South Korea book, this is one of the most wanted Byung Kook Kim author readers around the world.

The Park Chung Hee Era: The Transformation of South Korea
  • Paperback
  • 744 pages
  • The Park Chung Hee Era: The Transformation of South Korea
  • Byung-Kook Kim
  • English
  • 08 September 2019
  • 0674072316

10 thoughts on “The Park Chung Hee Era: The Transformation of South Korea

  1. says:

    700 119

  2. says:

    It took me almost a month to get over this massive work about one of the most contradictory period of the modern Korean history the Park Chung Hee era For the progressists, Park represents an era of unnecessary and ignoble dictatorship, whereas the conservatives consider him as the architect of the modern South Korean state Frankly speaking, the reading of this book was sometimes really unpleasant some chapters arereadable than others a dry style, a large amount of datas and of techn It took me almost a month to get over this massive work about one of the most contradictory period of the modern Korean history the Park Chung Hee era For the progressists, Park represents an era of unnecessary and ignoble dictatorship, whereas the conservatives consider him as the architect of the modern South Korean state Frankly speaking, the reading of this book was sometimes really unpleasant some chapters arereadable than others a dry style, a large amount of datas and of technical words It is however extremely precise and rich in informations Divided in five axes, this work stretched from History to Politics, Economy and International Relations.The first part is of historical nature, stretching from the preparation of the May 16th military coup by Park Chung Hee until the securization of power by the junta Unfortunately, it will be the only biographical part of the work Therefore, this work offers very scarce informations on Park s life before and after this momentum The second part handles the political aspects The doctrine of Park could be resumed by the formula puguk kangbyon rich nation, strong army , a leitmotiv retaken from the Meiji era in Japan After all Park was the product of the japanese colonial apparatus and a former officer of the imperial army In this respect, Park named his new constitution, introduced during his third terms Yushin , the Korean translation of Ishin , the japanese constitution under Meiji This part also explains in the one hand how Park dealt with the different South Korean Institutions army, police, intelligence to ensure himself both political basis and power and in the other hand how he succesfully eliminated potential rivals, playing the different factions in his political apparatus against each others, enabling him to stay in power until his assassination in 1979 More importantly, this second part also shows how Park structured his apparatus both with officers and technocrats The first group was supposed to emulate a militarist ethic in the different sectors of the new South Korean state while the second group was meant to offer their expertise The third part handles the economic and societal aspects of this era The notorious Chaebol are of course an unavoidable topic when talking about South Korean Economy Those large family owned industrial structures pre existed Park s coup but gained a new meaning in this era Strictly repressed at the begining for their supposed corruption and greed, they later became Park s best allies in his politic of rapid economic growth It would be false to believe that they were pawns in the hand of Park, as it would be false to believe that Park was at their mercy In fact, we should speak of an interdependent relation Park needed the Chaebol to fulfill his economic programm while the Chaebol needed Park for state fundings Another important point approached in this third part is the construction of a steel mill in Pohang This step was crucial to supply the growing industry and especially the young automobile industry in a country poor in ressources This system based on hypergrowth and irrational measures such as the sudden change of currency, the recurrent devaluations or state financing of low profit industries could have had irremediable consequences and ruined all the efforts and sacrifices South Koreans endured during this time Luckily for them, this risk taking policy paid off This part also deals with the countryside and the opposition called chaeya The countryside paid the price for this fast unbridled industrialization, wages were casually sunk and Park did little for the agricultural sector Paradoxally, this is not in the countryside but in the city that the Chaeya opposition emerged, denuncing the illegitimacy of Park s system especially after the introduction of the Yushin constitution They had however little tools for their actions and had to rely mostly on collaborations with the Democratic Party one of the few political parties allowed by the junta and occasional american support The fourth part was at my opinion the most interesting of all, exploring the international relations of South Korea at that time First of all with the Vietnam war and the reasons why Park decided to involve his country in this conflict in Southeast Asia Unlike what we might believe on first sights, the motivations were far from those of a crusade against communism the outcome of this war little mattered to him but muchon the occasion to do the Americans a favor , to obtain modern equipments and to train and professionalize the South Korean military forces Also, it offered the South Korean Industry an occasion to expand and make benefits with the South Vietnamese ally, demanding in materials Another axis of this part is the reconciliation politics with Japan Due to the conflictual past between Korea and Japan, this step was not easy to take and provoked discontentment in both countries It was however necessary for South Korea to access Japanese capitals and technical support, especially in a time when western nations were not eager to invest in the poor and unstable South Korean market For Japan, the development of South Korea was crucial, as Japan was demilitarized, South Korea represented its last barrier against the communist world Of course, Japanese elites would not have imagined that South Korea would grow out to the point of becoming a challenger in the economic sector The last topics approached in the international affairs are the relation with the USA and the development of a nuclear programm, both topics being intertwined Obviously, the USA were not satisfied of the establishment of a dictatorial regime, about which they knew little and that they did not choose unlike the previous regimes, Park and his accomplices had been educated at the Japanese school and not the american one However, Americans were forced to recognize, that Park seemedcapable than his predecessors to initiate the necessary economical growth, that would make of South Korea a sustainable country Due to the existence of a richer andpowerful North Korea at that time, those issues were prioritary and overthrowing Park would have been in any case too risky As the domestic opposition had little possibilities of expression, the USA filled the bill, taming Park s excesses The USA disposed of the most persuasive leverage to stop Park the financial support and the US Army guarantee After the American defeat in Vietnam, the strategy of disengagement in Asia also affected Korea and reinforced Park in his doctrine of self relient country In this respect, South Korea engaged in the development of a nuclear programm with the technical support of France, Belgium and Canada However, America could enforce the interruption of this programm using their tools of persuasion the possible complete removal of American troops from Korea and the end of American financial support This event tells usabout the US Park relation Park Chung Hee was not an obedient pawn but the limits of his room de manoeuvre were fixed by the Americans The fifth and last part offer different comparisons with other systems, regimes and developmental strategies First of all, Park is being compared to other significant Modern Nation Builders such as the Singaporean Lee Kuan Yew, the Chinese Deng Xiaoping and the Turk Mustapha Kemal Attat rk Of course, due to the different period, scale, system, all of them proceeded differently, but all were inhabited by a will to build a strong nation after painful humiliations colonization for Korea, dismemberment of the Ottoman Empire for Attat rk, the almost colonization of China for Deng Xiaoping and the exclusion of Malaysia for Lee The second comparative perspective propose a parallel analysis of Park Chung Hee in Korea and Ferdinand Marcos in the Philippines Both were dictators in the same period and in american client states This chapter demystifies the common assumption that South Korea owes its unexpected and spectacular development to American financing Certainly, American support played a role but the counter example of the Philippines that also enjoyed American financial support proves that it is far of being sufficient to ensure a sustainable development This chapter suggests that Park used his absolute power to build a modern state whereas Ferdinand Marcos used it for personal gains, being considered as one of the biggest Kleptocrat of Human History The third chapter compares the South Korean junta with contemporary Latin American dictatorships I found this chapter less relevant and less interesting than the previous ones, as those dictatorships took place in a different context and appeared for different reasons The last chapter compares the industrial development of Japan, South Korea and Taiwan Those three countries were the first nations in East Asia to become modern states and all shared a common past they all were core state of the former Japanese Empire They mostly follow similar patterns establishing of a steel mill, focus on heavy and chemical industries, export economies, focus on automobile industry etc but still differed in some respect Taiwan, disposing of a smaller market, proceededcarefully than South Korea, mostly relying on small and medium scale firms, whereas South Korea bet on the Chaebol and their large structures Japan having started its industrialization earlier and being wayadvanced than the two others mixed both small medium and large structures Japan also provided investments and expertize to both South Korea and Taiwan, participating thus in their development South Korea was also the only dictatorship among those three countries Unlike the democratic Japan and the Kuomintang ruled Taiwan, Park s junta disposed of very little legitimacy and could only rely on raw oppression to reach its ends Though the massive amount of informations and analysis this extensive work offers, it says little on the everyday experience and mostly focuses on the elites A question remains therefore unanswered How did the life of the average South Korean citizen look like However, this book is a must read for whoever wants to overcome basic assumptions on South Korea s miracle and study in details this crucial moment of contemporary Korean History

  3. says:

    The Park Chung Hee Era The Transformation of South Korea, is a series of essays covering various topics on the political climate in South Korea during the reign of autocratic leader Park Chung Hee Park took power in the early 1960 s in a military backed coup, and set about consolidating his power over the South Korean state He used economic reform, and a divide and conquer strategy to pacify the public and remove any obstacles to his own power The book covers a variety of topics in Park s So The Park Chung Hee Era The Transformation of South Korea, is a series of essays covering various topics on the political climate in South Korea during the reign of autocratic leader Park Chung Hee Park took power in the early 1960 s in a military backed coup, and set about consolidating his power over the South Korean state He used economic reform, and a divide and conquer strategy to pacify the public and remove any obstacles to his own power The book covers a variety of topics in Park s South Korea, and transcends a biography to offer ain depth political analysis of the intricate systems of control Park used to stay in power in South Korea The book begins by analyzing the coup background The various actors involved were often forced to retire by Park soon after the coup, to ensure no other locus of power emerged within the South Korean armed forces Park s control over the military is also examined throughout his reign, as he used a two tranche system of promotion, one in the Korean Central Intelligence Agency KCIA and one for the Korean Armed Forces PSS This divide and conquer strategy allowed a division of the security apparatus of the state, and the states armed forces to ensure no one General could achieve a large following Park s political control was similar, as he divided the various state ministries into task groups with little political clout The Economic Planning Board EPB and the Ministry of Finance MoF became the most powerful, and PArk used them to control the economic hyper growth that South Korea experienced.The chapters on the economy were also fascinating Monetary and fiscal policy are analyzed through a political lens focusing not just on economic growth, but on the underlying reasons why Park enabled certain policy initiatives His focus on heavy and chemical industrialization HCI throughout his reign had ulterior political motives Economic growth helped to shift his support from rural to urban, thus allowing him to win elections held in 1963 and retain power HCI also contributed to a rearmament of South Korea, and reduced its dependence on US military aid The Pohang Steel company, auto makers like Hyundai, and Chaebol groups like Samsung are examined in detail, as are the conflicting ties that the large business groups and the Korean state had Both were reliant on each other, the Chaebol receiving state subsidies, tax breaks and favourable policies and licenses, in exchange for taking on the risk involved in rapid financial growth and industrialization Park s foreign diplomacy initiatives are examined He opened up relations with former colonial master Japan, just 20 years after they lost WWII, and secured reparation payments and technological patents for South Korea s growing steel industry He also used the Vietnam War as a pretext to open up South Korea to diplomatic relations in Asia, with common minded ie anti communist states South Vietnam was a good spot for Park to test out his growing military arsenal, and to secure funds for weapons and weapon manufacturing from the US Park s relationship with the US changed with the US government, sometimes being warm, and sometimes feeling the cold sting of betrayal from his guarantors Even so, Park navigated the tricky waters of Cold War diplomacy, all while holding autocratic power and cementing his grip on the South Korean state Finally, the book compares South Korean development to other areas of the world While similarities between an autocratic Korea and Latin American states at the time exist, Park was adept at holding power, building the economy and playing his allies for benefits, all at the same time Park s reign is controversial to this day He took power in a coup, centralized control over the South Korea state, and engaged in painful hyper growth, while stamping out opposition from student groups, opposition politicians, and labour unions He brought South Korea into the modern world, and changed the country from third world to a developing state in his 19 or so years of rule His assassination at the hands of his own KCIA director was a shock, and many still think of Park as the father of South Korea Even so, he always thought of political power first, and would do whatever it took whether it be purging friends and allies, or violently suppressing protest movements, to forcing economic reform and threatening martial law to hold power Park s vision of Rich Nation, Strong Army was key to his success, and his can do spirit was political policy during his reign This book was a fascinating look at an era of hyper growth almost unseen in world history And it was all started by one autocratic leader, as he tried to cling to power in a world torn apart by Cold War ideology and political upheaval Park was a masterful politician, and The Park Chung Hee Era shows all of hi Machiavellian machinations in all their terrible glory This was a wonderful read, and I would highly recommend it to those interested in world politics, Korea, and political theory

  4. says:

    1010

  5. says:

    The Park Chung Hee Era is a spectacular, continuous collection of essays on the evolution of modern South Korea under its autocratic bellwether This volume unites broad perspectives to cover many complex dimensions of Park s regime Scholars and readers across disciplines will find an indispensable guide to Park Chung Hee and a detailed panorama of the political economy behind South Korea s ascent.The volume is split up into sections coinciding with the key themes of the Park Era from internat The Park Chung Hee Era is a spectacular, continuous collection of essays on the evolution of modern South Korea under its autocratic bellwether This volume unites broad perspectives to cover many complex dimensions of Park s regime Scholars and readers across disciplines will find an indispensable guide to Park Chung Hee and a detailed panorama of the political economy behind South Korea s ascent.The volume is split up into sections coinciding with the key themes of the Park Era from international relations to industrial policy and the political details of each Beyond these core sections, that final essays examine Park from a comparative politics perspective While the comparative essays establish the peculiarity of his autocracy, they establish the importance of this book understanding the leader helps us understand parallel experiences across Asia e.g Philippines under Marcos.While many of the chapters are relatively self contained, there are interwoven themes From the first collection of essays detailing the rise of Park s junta, it is hard to ignore the power of the leader s vision in shaping the South Korean trajectory Muchthan pursuing a single, coherent development strategy, a picture emerges of a regime zigzagging with marked successes and failures between five year plans and pushes to embody Park s mantra of rich country and strong military Politics, leadership, and autocratic imagination reign supreme.A study of Park s autocracy cannot avoid the development strategy that he is known for Because this volume is keen on the political historical details of Park s state, it analyzes South Korean development policyconvincingly than other worksso than many pure economic treatments of South Korean growth orsociological theories of his developmental state One gets a full picture of the alphabet soup i.e the EPB, MCI, MOC, HCIPC, etc of planning agencies and the many centripetal political forces behind South Korea s economic transformation.A wonderfully sweeping book that captures the complex, messy political experience of South Korea s ascent under Park The essays of The Park Chung Hee Era focus on everything from nitty gritty policy details to the broader political economy of the regime Muchthan a biography, it is a finely curated work on the nuanced relationship between an autocrat and national development Indispensable for Asian scholars and social scientists with a stake in understanding South Korea s experience

  6. says:

    I must say, I haven t read the whole book, but those chapters I picked up, dealing with economics and Park s comparative analysis with other leaders, were very interesting and robust His Park Chung Hee s strategy of concentrating resources in the hands of a few companies, leveraging international relationships to get funding, maintaining a healthy competition between conglomerates, while at the same time giving them incentives to be bold and go for international markets worked very well Th I must say, I haven t read the whole book, but those chapters I picked up, dealing with economics and Park s comparative analysis with other leaders, were very interesting and robust His Park Chung Hee s strategy of concentrating resources in the hands of a few companies, leveraging international relationships to get funding, maintaining a healthy competition between conglomerates, while at the same time giving them incentives to be bold and go for international markets worked very well The best chapter for me dealt with comparison between successful Asian leaders Lee Kwan Yew, Den Xiaoping and a leader from Turkey forgot his name As you will see there are some similarities between all of them Anyone interested in Korea and how it became such a success in half a century, should read this book, covering, probably, thecontroversial period in the history of the country

  7. says:

    This book consists of a series of essays that focus on Park Chung hee, the architect of Korea s industrial renaissance The essays are written primarily by Korean scholars Most of the essays are very good, but some suffer for poor foreign language academic tropes that make them hard to read Though most of the essayists seem to have a pr0 Park leaning, they do a good job of highlighting his imperfections and noting the terrible things he did in the name of progress There doesn t appear to be m This book consists of a series of essays that focus on Park Chung hee, the architect of Korea s industrial renaissance The essays are written primarily by Korean scholars Most of the essays are very good, but some suffer for poor foreign language academic tropes that make them hard to read Though most of the essayists seem to have a pr0 Park leaning, they do a good job of highlighting his imperfections and noting the terrible things he did in the name of progress There doesn t appear to be much sugar coating, which is a positive.Park was a very shitty human, that s for sure But, he was a pretty remarkable steward of Korea s unprecedented rise from nothing to prominence He s, rightfully, one of thecontroversial personages of the past 50 years Here is a man who almost single handily changed the fortunes of his entire country from one of the world s poorest to one of its richest He did so by going against nearly all of the perceived economic wisdom of the time However, he was a dictator who repressed his people and murdered and kidnapped to get his way.How do we judge such a man

  8. says:

    The only really good part is the last section where they compate Park to Atat rk, Deng, Lee Kwan Yew, Marcos, and others.The preceeding chapters do not go deep enough It s historical storyteling rather than any theory or systematisation Far too many unnecessary Korean terms, most of which could simply be used in the English version Far too may abreviations, you lose track.

  9. says:

    Four stars for informational content three for style This was a densely written tome, some chapters reador less fluidly than others Lots of great information on many aspects of how Park s political system affected many aspects of Korean politics, economy, etc.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *