A Natural History of Conifers



❰Epub❯ ➞ A Natural History of Conifers Author Aljos Farjon – E17streets4all.co.uk A compelling account of the extraordinary relatives of ordinary garden conifers Leading expert Aljos Farjon provides a compelling narrative that observes conifers from the standpoint of the curious na A compelling account of the extraordinary History of eBook ´ relatives of ordinary garden conifers Leading expert Aljos Farjon provides a compelling narrative that observes conifers from the standpoint of the curious naturalist It starts with the A Natural eBook ò basic question of what conifers are and continues to explore their evolution, taxonomy, ecology, distribution, human uses, and issues of conservation As the story unfolds many popular misconceptions are dispelled, such as the false Natural History of Epub Ú notion that all conifers have cones The extraordinary diversity of conifers begins to dawn as Farjon describes the diminutive creeping shrub Microcachrys tetragona, whose strange seed cones resemble raspberries, and the prehistoric looking Araucaria meulleri The taxonomic diversity of conifers is huge and Farjon goes on to relate how, over the course ofmillion years, these trees and shrubs have adapted to survive geological upheavals, climatic extremes, and formidable competition from flowering plants All who seek to learn about the early history of life on our planet will cherish this book.A Natural History of Conifers

Is a well known author, some History of eBook ´ of his books are a fascination for readers like in the A Natural History of Conifers book, this is one of the most wanted Aljos Farjon author A Natural eBook ò readers around the world.

A Natural History of Conifers PDF/EPUB ´ Natural
    A Natural History of Conifers PDF/EPUB ´ Natural meulleri The taxonomic diversity of conifers is huge and Farjon goes on to relate how, over the course ofmillion years, these trees and shrubs have adapted to survive geological upheavals, climatic extremes, and formidable competition from flowering plants All who seek to learn about the early history of life on our planet will cherish this book."/>
  • Hardcover
  • 304 pages
  • A Natural History of Conifers
  • Aljos Farjon
  • English
  • 25 June 2019
  • 0881928690

10 thoughts on “A Natural History of Conifers

  1. says:

    Angiosperm ovules are enclosed in the ovary Gymnosperm ovules are exposed seeds are produced in a cone Conifers have a distinctive compound cone that originally developed in the Carboniferous about 310 mya Unclear whether the yews are conifers, but now generally considered to be Conifer wood lacks vessels has tracheids with large bordered pits instead All conifers contain resin in the wood Many conifers are 2000 5000 years old Fossil remains appear in areas where they no longer Angiosperm ovules are enclosed in the ovary Gymnosperm ovules are exposed seeds are produced in a cone Conifers have a distinctive compound cone that originally developed in the Carboniferous about 310 mya Unclear whether the yews are conifers, but now generally considered to be Conifer wood lacks vessels has tracheids with large bordered pits instead All conifers contain resin in the wood Many conifers are 2000 5000 years old Fossil remains appear in areas where they no longer grow Podocarpus is a largely tropical genus where the cones are reduced to produce a single seed with a tough coat The bracts and seed scales of the aborted ovules are fused to produce an inflated succulent, brightly coloured receptacle under the seed Birds are the main dispersers Conifers are known from most ecosystems, the major exception being tropical lowland rain forest, where the angiosperms entirely out compete them New Caledonia is an island of conifers, many places lacking any grass whatsoever An evolutionary tree indicates that the earlier conifers in the Carboniferous did not last long The conifers diversified in the Triassic, with the greatest abundance in the Cretaceous A general loss of diversity occurred toward the end of the Tertiary In northern climates, fire can destroy large coniferous forests Also, new land is provided in deposition area along rivers Conifers require that land be prepared by other pioneer plants and the establishment of mycorrhizal fungi Conifers produce many small light seeds with wings that disperse well in the wind Therefore, burns come back through reseeding, not resprouting Conifers can adapt to extremely poor soils, such as the 28 species that grow on the Plaine des Lacs in New Caledonia where the ultramafic soils are heavy in toxic metals Conifers have an advantage in that they accumulate a large leaf surface over several years cohorts , that may exceed that of a similarly sized angiosperm Per unit, the leaves and wood of angiosperms areefficient, however Fast growing grasslands can exclude confires However, over grazing or fire prevention can suppress the grasses, allowing the return of the conifers Junipers have returned to the American West in this way One adaptation of conifers to poor soils is the symbiosis of the roots with mycorrhizal fungi, thereby greatly increasing the effective size of their root systems The mushrooms normally seen in forests are mostly not mycorrhizal fungi The small leaves of conifers are an advantage for slow growth in temperate climates, so long as there is light and water can flow Small leaves are resistant to insects The giant conifers do not successfully produce young trees until a major event fire, volcano levels a piece of the forest The seeds of the large trees are strong competitors in the new area The large trees are very resistant to fire Douglas Fir can have bark that is 25 cm thick Some conifers have evolved to rely on birds for seed dispersion In Europe, the Arolla pine has evolved with the Eurasian Nutcracker In the U.S., the Clark s Nutcracker works with the Whitebark and Limber pines The Eurasian Nutcracker caches 25000 seeds avg 5 seeds per cache and apparently remembers them all Will dig snow tunnels to caches of 130 300 cm length Conifers protect themselves from large herbivores with sharp spiny leaves and toxins such as terpenes, in the leaves Insect protection is through resins and the terpenes More than 30,000 pine terpenes have been identified Dwarf mistletoes are a major parasite, that spreads slowly Pines with drooping needles can shed the mistletoe seeds One parasitic conifer has been found that parasitizes another conifer Giant redwoods have re iterated trunks where essentially a new tree grows from existing branches One tree has a class 6 iteration iteration from iteration from Canopy soil in crotches of big trees can be as much as 2 m deep, and forms the basis of entire ecosystems New Caledonia has 44 species of conifer, all of which are endemic Nearly half of the 41 species of Araucariacae are found in N.C N.C hasthan 3000 plant species in 156 families with about 80% endemism The wood of conifers is known as softwood, while that of angiosperms is known as hardwood Perhaps this originated in Europe where pine is much softer than oak Worldwide, conifer wood is quite variable and slow growing species produce quite hard wood During the Industrial Revolution, the newly wealthy developed a large interest in natural history Collecting conifers became very popular Many pinetum pineta gardens of conifers were established in England The sequoia was originally given the name Wellingtonia in 1853 Americans wanted in called Washingtonia Both names had been previously used Resolved in 1939 when Buchholz gave it the name Sequoiadendron Some plants show unusual characteristics in their juvenile stages They can be given cultivar names only to find that they return to true form when mature These are called reversions Conifers, especially dwarf types, are currently of high horticultural interest in the U.K., Japan and other countries Witches brooms occur of two types One is the tree s reaction to parasites or pathogens The other is due to a mutation in the leaf bud This type can produce cones and seeds When the seeds germinate, half develop normally, the other half turn out dwarfish This can be a source of new cultivars Some conifers seem to producevariation cultivars than others One dwarf conifer Chamaecyparis obtus produces many variations in cultivation, but few in nature Of the 13 species of Araucaria in New Caledonia, 9 grow on ultramafic soils and are in danger of extinction due to mining In some cases, pines can be invasive, as in the heathlands of the Netherlands and the tablelands of South Africa

  2. says:

    Uneven is perhaps the best summary of this book that I can provide It is jam packed with information, but that information varies wildly in its technical jargon and depth Some concepts are explained thoroughly, while others are sprung upon you as a complex set of adjectives very specific to Farjon s field of study Also although a minor point , it strikes me that Farjon fails to provide a satisfactory concluding chapter.

  3. says:

    I loved this book, Not quite an easy read but it connects most of the dots for the gymonsperms With a little help from your cell phone to explain some of the terminology and if you like amature botany as I do, you will love this book too.

  4. says:

    I love plants, and especially conifers, so I naturally had to read this book by the world s preeminent expert on this group of plants.I loved the text, especially the chapters on relations between taxa and on extinct conifers Written for a general audience, it s an entertaining yet informative treatment of this group of plants The photographs in the book are best described as tree porn , and I mean that in the best way possible Also included are wonderful original pen and ink botanical illus I love plants, and especially conifers, so I naturally had to read this book by the world s preeminent expert on this group of plants.I loved the text, especially the chapters on relations between taxa and on extinct conifers Written for a general audience, it s an entertaining yet informative treatment of this group of plants The photographs in the book are best described as tree porn , and I mean that in the best way possible Also included are wonderful original pen and ink botanical illustrations by the author I would recommend this book for anyone with an appreciation for the botanical world

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *