Mamas Last Hug



New York Times Best Selling Author And Primatologist Frans De Waal Explores The Fascinating World Of Animal And Human Emotions.Frans De Waal Has Spent Four Decades At The Forefront Of Animal Research Following Up On The Best Selling Are We Smart Enough To Know How Smart Animals Are , Which Investigated Animal Intelligence, Mama S Last Hug Delivers A Fascinating Exploration Of The Rich Emotional Lives Of Animals.Mama S Last Hug Begins With The Death Of Mama, A Chimpanzee Matriarch Who Formed A Deep Bond With Biologist Jan Van Hooff When Mama Was Dying, Van Hooff Took The Unusual Step Of Visiting Her In Her Night Cage For A Last Hug Their Goodbyes Were Filmed And Went Viral Millions Of People Were Deeply Moved By The Way Mama Embraced The Professor, Welcoming Him With A Big Smile While Reassuring Him By Patting His Neck, In A Gesture Often Considered Typically Human But That Is In Fact Common To All Primates This Story And Others Like It Form The Core Of De Waal S Argument, Showing That Humans Are Not The Only Species With The Capacity For Love, Hate, Fear, Shame, Guilt, Joy, Disgust, And Empathy.De Waal Discusses Facial Expressions, The Emotions Behind Human Politics, The Illusion Of Free Will, Animal Sentience, And, Of Course, Mama S Life And Death The Message Is One Of Continuity Between Us And Other Species, Such As The Radical Proposal That Emotions Are Like Organs We Don T Have A Single Organ That Other Animals Don T Have, And The Same Is True For Our Emotions Mama S Last Hug Opens Our Hearts And Minds To The Many Ways In Which Humans And Other Animals Are Connected, Transforming How We View The Living World Around Us.Mamas Last Hug

Frans de Waal has been named one of Time magazine s 100 Most Influential People The author of Are We Smart Enough to Know How Smart Animals Are , among many other works, he is the C H Candler Professor in Emory University s Psychology Department and director of the Living Links Center at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center He lives in Atlanta, Georgia.

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  • Hardcover
  • 336 pages
  • Mamas Last Hug
  • Frans de Waal
  • English
  • 15 November 2018
  • 9780393635065

10 thoughts on “Mamas Last Hug

  1. says:

    As a student, realizing that my biology books were of little help explaining chimpanzee behavior, I picked up a copy of Machiavelli s The Prince It offered an insightful, unadorned account of human behavior based on real life observations of the Borgias, the Medici, and the popes The book put me in the right frame of mind to write about ape politics at the zoo We know our own inner states imperfectly and often mislead both ourselves and those around us We re masters of fake happiness, suppressed fear, and misguided love This is why I m pleased to work with nonlinguistic creatures I m forced to guess their feelings, but at least they never lead me astray by what they tell me about themselves Jan van Hoof image from Utrechtse Bilologen VerenigingJan van Hoof was two months shy of eighty years old and Mama was one month shy of fifty nine when they said their goodbyes They had known each other for forty years She d been sleeping a lot, had lost considerable weight, which was not surprising for one of the world s oldest zoo chimpanzees, but she finally wakes up, spots Jan, and beams with a smile far wider than any human could produce She bleats out a high pitched call of greeting while reaching up for Jan s head, pats the back of his neck and strokes his hair, pulling him closer It is a moving moment that most of us might struggle to get through without releasing at least one or two tears of recognition And why not There are many ties that bind us than there are those that divide us And with this tearful scene we are delivered to a key question Just how different are humans from apes, from animals, in terms of our emotional lives Mama image from Royal Burgers ZooIn 1980, the Dutch born author learned that a favorite chimpanzee alpha had been murdered by two male rivals in the colony It became a life changing event for him He was about to move to the USA and continue his study of apes, but he realized that there was far too much that was not known about the roles of cooperation, reconciliation, pro social behavior, and fairness in the animals relationships He redirected his life studies toward gaining a better understanding of such long neglected areas of animal behavioral research Frans de Waal image from wikipediaFranciscus Bernardus Maria Frans de Waal is now a world renowned primatologist and social psychologist who has broken much new ground in our understanding of animal psychology and emotion Competition was always studied in his field, but de Waal was the first to establish intentional deception, conflict resolution, and a non human basis for empathy and morality A serious scientist, whose popular writing has brought his theories to a wide readership, his list of awards and recognitions would fill the page His most recent book is Are We Smart Enough To Know How Smart Animals Are Hopefully, enough of us are The question here is whether we are perceptive enough to be able to recognize and appreciate animal emotions.Mama, the long time matriarch of the Burgers Zoo chimpanzee colony, with her daughter Moniek At the time of this photo Mama was at the height of her power Image and text from the bookThis is not a book about Mama, although her story does illustrate de Waal s point Many researchers appear to have an irresistible impulse to portray animals as entirely separate from people De Waal is interested in showing us that there is far less difference than human exceptionalists would like to think Are we really so different There have been many lines scientists have drawn that supposedly separate humans from animals, that separate us from our biological roots Once it was claimed that humans are different because we use tools That lasted until researchers discovered that diverse sorts of creatures also use tools Brain size Number of neurons Nope, nope More recently, a difference maker has been claimed in our experiencing of emotions, portraying animals as virtually mechanical Anyone with cats, dogs, or most other sorts of pets can assure you that our companion animals do indeed have emotions As do, apparently other animals as well Now there is research to back up what is obvious to many of us The anthropomorphism argument that we merely project our emotions onto the animals being studied is rooted in human exceptionalism It reflects the desire to set humans apart and deny our animality To do so remains customary in the humanities and much of the social sciences, which thrive on the notion that the human mind is somehow our own invention Modern neuroscience makes it impossible to maintain a sharp human animal dualism Bonobos are huggers Image by Jutta Hof taken from de Waal s FBAnd if we are not so different, then what might be our common roots How did our emotions, and how we behave come to be And by we I am not limiting that to people The work portrayed here raises many questions, about the origin of some characteristics of human beings, about animals having a sense of time, about the nutritional needs of hunter gatherers, the role of neuron count in consciousness, a definition of consciousness, the role of individualism and socialization in species survival, the impact of affection in early life on development, ok, take a breath We have trouble imagining fairness as an evolved trait party due to how we depict nature Using evocative phrases such as survival of the fittest and nature red in tooth and claw, we stress nature s cruelty, leaving no room for fairness, only the right of the strongest In the meantime, we forget that animals often depend on each other and survive through cooperation In fact, they struggle far against their environment or against hunger and disease than against each other Orangutan mother holding juvenile image by Max Block taken from de Waal s FB Rested now Ok, back to it whether humans are alone in having free will, the impact of increasing inequality on longevity Is there a human instinct for war Do animals laugh or smile Can animals commit murder What is the relationship between intellect and emotion What does it mean to be an alpha male And where did our notion of that term originate What is the relationship between emotions and free will The difference between feelings and emotions I could go on, but you get the picture The idea that we can achieve optimal sociality only by subduing human biology is antiquated It doesn t fit with what we know about hunter gatherers, other primates, or modern neuroscience It also promotes a sequential view first we had human biology, then we got civilization whereas in reality the two have always gone hand in hand Grooming bonobo image by Jutta Hof taken from de Waal s FBThere is an entire chapter on smiling and laughter, yes, they do which is a real revelation regarding what the source of humor might be We may not be in full control of our emotions, but we aren t their slaves either This is why you should never say my emotions took over as an excuse for something stupid you did, because you let your emotions take over Getting emotional has a voluntary side You let yourself fall in love with the wrong person, you let yourself hate certain others, you allowed greed to cloud your judgment or imagination to feed your jealousy Emotions are never just emotions, and they are never fully automated Perhaps the greatest misunderstanding about emotions is that they are the opposite of cognition We have translated the dualism between body and mind into one between emotion and intelligence, but the two actually go together and cannot operate without each other What has been learned from the lessons discussed here can be used to improve not only how we treat animals that are housed in zoos, and used in research, but in how livestock can be treated humanely, reinforcing the work of researchers in this field, such Temple Grandin.Baby Love image by Jutta Maue Kay taken from de Waal s FBDe Waal is a first rate writer, bringing to his books an engaging style, and an ability to make complex subjects accessible to the average reader He even exposes, on occasion, a sense of humor, which is always welcome in popular science writing De Waal makes a strong case that our emotions not only do not separate us from other beings, but show our deep connection to them He shows how emotions intellect is a formula that has been very successful for the survival of many species, and offers a far flexible approach to solving new problems than rigid instinctual responses ever could He gives us good reason to recognize our shared inheritance, our fellowship and sisterhood with a vast array of earth s creatures, and in so doing, offers us tools to better understand our behavior as a species, and the behavior of non human living things all around us It is an intellectual whirlwind, with many new ideas flying around Plenty there to grab and inspect Mama s Last Hug should be the beginning of a new widespread appreciation for our own social, emotional and psychological roots, and empathy for the experience of others Embrace it I will only rarely refer to other species as other animals or non human animals For simplicity s sake, I will mostly call them just animals, even though for me, as a biologist, nothing is self evident than that we are part of the same kingdom We are animals Since I don t look at our species as emotionally much different from other mammals, and in fact would be hard pressed to pinpoint uniquely human emotions, we had better pay careful attention to the emotional background we share with our fellow travelers on this planet Frans De WaalGorillas live in family groups with a dominant silverback male and several females and offspring Gorilla dads sometimes groom and play with their infants, even stepping in as surrogate mothers if need be image by Diane Fossey taken from de Waal s FBReview posted March 8, 2019Publication date March 12, 2019 EXTRA STUFFDe Waal his FB page he is head of Living Links Center for the Advanced Study of Ape and Human Evolution There are many informative articles, including interviews with de Waal, linked on the Publications Page Definitely a rabbit hole worth exploring TED Talk Moral Behavior in Animals another TED Talk The Surprising Science of Alpha Males March 9, 2019 NY Times Your Dog Feels as Guilty as She Looks An excerpt from the book What Do We Really Know About Animals Emotions Other items of interest The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals by Charles Darwin on Gutenberg Video of Jan and Mama saying goodbye Royal Burgers Zoo page about Mama and Jan my review of Among the Great Apes a very different sort of ape related book

  2. says:

    Frans de Waal s latest book, Mama s Last Hug Animal and Human Emotions, is a survey of various emotions what they are, when they arise, and how they are identified in both animals and humans Each chapter covers a different set of emotions or concepts related to them, such as emotional intelligence and sentience, described with a plentiful assortment of de Waal s firsthand anecdotes from his decades studying primates as well as summaries of other scientific publications In short, he asserts and with much credible evidence that not only do animals have rich emotional lives, but they very much parallel that of humans Anyone who has a pet at home perhaps will shrug at why this is such a big deal Like other people who own pets, I m no stranger to describing the behavior of my cats in emotional terms they become mopey and depressed when my suitcases come out and they know I m going to be gone for a while when I come home from work or a trip they re ecstatic to see me they get frustrated when their food or water dish has been empty too long etc This is just what the average person tends to do, and we don t think twice about it The thing is, scientific reasoning has discredited this for ages as anthropomorphism and the topic gets a nice overview early on in Mama s Last Hug , which has long been the silly foolish thing humans do that s just plain nonsense As Frans de Waal and other scientists have worked hard to prove over the years this is actually not the case Hard, irrefutable, scientific evidence is now coming out to show that we humans are not on a magnificent pedestal above the rest of the animal kingdom after all Advances in neuroscience and a growing awareness of and accounting for once ignored variables in experimental data like social animals being tested in isolation versus in a social environment, or the very distinct differences in rat behavior when lab technicians are male or female have only shown that we humans are far similar to the rest of the animals than we are dissimilar Turns out, we humans aren t actually bad at correctly assessing the emotional states of animals, either.Personally, I devoured this book as quickly as I could I ve highlighted so many passages, and discussed the stories and conclusions with anyone that will listen I ve always been endlessly fascinated with where scientists are going with their studies of emotions, and usually find myself skimming some psychology publications just for fun In fact, I even participated in research myself partly to see how experiments were run, partly to get a free MRI of my brain why not But I always come away from it all a bit perplexed by the over reliance on linguistics A brain scan and one s body language facial expressions will always depict what one s emotions are regardless of what they may say to the contrary Further, humans simply have a tendency to not understand their own emotions, or at the very least struggle to communicate them in a way that s fully understood from one person to the next, if they aren t outright lying about what their emotions are Language is an abstraction over the complicated mess contained within Sure, I can tell you something made me sad with my fancy human language skills, but do you really know what I experience if you can t see my expressions or behavior Mama s Last Hug has made me think rather deeply about what really does differentiate us from the other animals on our planet I ve never questioned if animals are actually clever, or if they have emotions and by extension feelings , but I didn t quite realize just how tremendously much we share until finishing this book When I look at my species, I see our differences from the other species on this planet in our artistic works and creative endeavors But in uniquely human traits, I also see a dark side an endless appetite for destruction and a capacity for doubting, questioning, and ultimately ignoring our own emotions as if they were somehow not an intricate part of us The capability for empathy and self sacrifice isn t uniquely human instead, it is a life preserving tendency shared amongst most if not all animals There is life giving, life preserving wisdom in what we ve long considered primitive or basic, and it stares right back at us when we slow down long enough to really see our animal cousins and what they innately know and do that we so readily resist I couldn t recommend Mama s Last Hug Animal and Human Emotions by Frans de Waal enough From the wonderful stories of observed animal emotions, to the thoughtfulness spurred regarding how we treat animals and how we think about ourselves, there s a lot of to be gained from reading this book It was delightful to read and I am looking forward to reading Frans de Waal s prior works as well I received an advance reading copy from the publisher, W W Norton

  3. says:

    Frans DeWaal is a primatologist who has studied animal emotions for decades This fascinating book explores the rich emotional lives of animals Relating observations and laboratory experiments we are told of emotions found not only in primates, but rats, moles, and fish Due to a lack of language in these groups at least a language humans understand , science has been skeptical about the existence of emotions They can t tell us when they are sad, joyful, envious They, unlike humans, cannot lie about what they are experiencing De Waal also believes that reluctance to accept their emotions may stem from an unwillingness to grant complex emotions to lower life forms After all, isn t that what makes us superior Thankfully, science is changing and that will trickle down to the general public We should respect all life We should care about their habitats and their handling and quality of life if used for consumption Some progress is being made, but we have a long way still to go.DeWaal is not just extremely knowledgeable and passionate about his subject, but he is an engaging writer I highly recommend this book We tend to underestimate the emotions that organize our lives and institutions, but they are at the core of everything we do and are The desire to control others is a driving force behind many social processes and imposes structure on primate societies From Trump and Clinton s quest to lead the nation to bonobo mothers who come to blows over their sons, the power motive is pervasive and plain to see It has led to some of our highest achievements under inspiring leaders, but it also has a disturbing track record of violence, including the political assassinations to which our own species is no stranger.Emotions can be good, bad, and ugly, which is as true for animals as it is for us.

  4. says:

    Orhan Pamuk ve Javier Marias n yeni roman n nas l bekliyorsam De Waal in yeni kitab n da ayn heyecanla bekliyorum Metis bug ne kadar 3 kitab dilimize kazand rd diye biliyorum Umar m bu da k sa bir s re i erisinde evrilir A a da uzun bir review var ama baz uyar lar ba tan yapay m da kimse k zmas n Yaz uzun oldu u i in ben ne dedi ime odaklan rken bunu nas l s yledi ime ok zenmedim yani konu tu um gibi yazd m Baz yerlerde plaza al an gibi akademi de b yle maalesef ngilizce kelimeler kulland m, c mleler yer yer d k, nadiren de olsa seviye de avamla yor Raz ysan z ba layal m S kl kla hayvanlar n leceklerini ng rd klerini iddia ederiz zellikle kedilerin leceklerini anlay p sakland klar n Bunu bilmemizin imk ns z oldu unu belirtiyor De Waal Ac nedeniyle ya da yaln z kalmak istedikleri i in de saklanm olabilirler ve hayvanlar n leceklerini anlay p anlamad klar n bilmemiz u an i in imk ns z.Kuif empanze s t yetmedi inden evvelce yapt do umlardan sonra yavrular n kaybetmi Akabinde b y k depresyonlara girmi , yemek yemeyi reddetmi , l klar atm De Waal, sadece insana zg oldu u bilinen g zya n n emaresini bile g rd n s yl yor Kuif te Bu noktada De Waal, Ben buna biberonla bebek emzirmeyi reteyim, diyor Lakin yle bir sorun var, Kuif in bebe i oldu unda bunu ondan almalar m mk n de il Kolonide bir de sa r bir empanze var ve bebekleri kendisiyle m r ldanarak ileti im kurmaya al t nda onlar duymad ndan yavrular l yor s rekli De Waal, onun bir yavrusunu al yor ve Kuif in g z n nde biberonla emzirme i ini birka haftada Kuif e retiyor Sonra bebe i Kuif in kafesine b rak yorlar ve Kuif bunu g r nce nce gelip De Waal ve bak c s n perek izin istiyor nk bir ba ka empanzenin yavrusunu almak, insanlarda oldu u gibi, b y k bir su orada da zin verilince yavruyu al yor ve biberonla emzirerek b y t yor Kuif, koloninin en m kemmel annesi oluyor ve biberon kullanma tekni ini ona retilmeyen bi imlerde geli tiriyor Bu olaydan sonra Kuif, kendi yavrular n da biberonla besleyerek b y tebiliyor ve De Waal i her g rd nde muhte em bir efkat ve sevgi g sterisi sunuyor Her primatolog unu ya ar, diyor De Waal Bunlar hayvansa ben neyim phesiz hepimiz hayvan z De Waal 68 li O ku a n renci liderlerine politik liderlerine geri d n p bakt mda, diyor Waal asl nda e itlik, zg rl k ad alt nda t m g c ve kad nlar kendisine isteyen bir alfa erke inden ba ka bir ey g rm yorum De Waal, s ylemle eylemin bu denli tutars z olmas nda sorunun eylemde oldu unu da d nm yor Sorun s ylemin, eylenemeyecek kadar iddial olmas nda Di i empanzeler erkeklerin ilgisini ekmek i in genital b lgelerinde pembe, slak bir i kinlik olu turuyor nsana pek de ho g z kmeyen bu g r nt erkek empanzeler i in bir tahrik unsuru De Waal, ayn s n n insanlarda kad nlar n g sleri kar s nda g sterilen ilgi oldu unu belirtiyor Erkeklerde alfa, gen ve g l lerden karken ve bunlar eski alfalar devirirken, di ilerde alfalar ya l lar Di iler y netici pozisyonlar i in nadiren rekabet ediyor ve yeteri kadar beklerlerse o pozisyona zaten geliyorlar nsanlara genelleme i ini size b rak yorum Amos isimli eski ve zaman nda favori alfalardan bir empanzenin aniden ok hasta oldu u anla l yor Asl nda ileri derecede kanser lakin hastal n hep saklam ki bu erkek memelilerde s k g r len bir durum D ar kmay reddetti i son g nlerinde di ilerden bir eski dost, Daisy, s rekli onunla ilgileniyor ve duvarla Amos un bedeni aras na yumu ak nesneler koyuyor Hastam z n arkas na yast k koymam z gibi Yas duygusunun olu mas i in ba lanma gereklidir Evcil hayvanlar evde biri ld nde ancak o ki i ile ba lar varsa bunu anlar ve z l rler, aksi takdirde umurlar nda olmaz Biz bu konuda rol yapabiliyoruz Bir uzak akrabam n e i vefat etmi ti ve kendisi ertesi g n len yeme inde bir baklavay b t n olarak a z na soktu unda hayret etmi tim imdi etmiyorum Zaten birka ay sonra da evlenmek istemi ti 70 lerindeki bu dedemiz Konrad Lorenz n bir rencisi ideal e ya am n n kazlarda oldu unu iddia eden hocas na, ama ben bunun erke ini sadakatsizlik i inde g rd m dedi inde hocan n tepkisi ve bu onu daha da insan yapar Tek e lilik memelilerden ziyade ku larda g r len bir davran Asl nda memelilerde tek e lilik nadir ve insanlar n tek e li olduklar son derece tart mal Hem a k hem sadakat hem iftle me hem de bebek besleme s re lerinde oksitosin hormonunun i levi detayl ca a klan yor kitapta Lakin u ilgin , evli erkeklere burundan oksitosin spreylendi inde evredeki ekici kad nlardan rahats z olup mesafelerini korumaya al yorlar.Hayvanlar l m n gelece ini bilerek mi ya yorlar bu konu pheli lakin aralar ndan biri ld nde bunun bir nihai durum oldu unu, onun bir daha aralar nda olmayaca n kesinlikle anl yorlar Yani, l m bilip bekledikleri pheli olsa da g rd klerinde tan d klar phesiz.Kan m dondu, kan m ekildi gibi ifadeler asl nda v cudun ger ek tepkilerinden t reme Bizde de maymunlarda da korku anlar nda v cut s s d yor Bu ba lamda, bana ok dokundu deyimi de yersiz de il Dokunmas i in yak n olmas gerekir bir olay n ve bu yak nl k s kl kla olay n evremizde olmas ve bir g r nt ile desteklenmesi ile ili kili Bu nedenle, sahilde yatan l bir ocuk bedeni d nyay aya a kald rabilirken konuya ili kin bir haber okumak ayn etkiyi yapmaz Tam da bu nedenle, g r nt kullan lan ba talepleri daha ok ba toplar Bu konu yine empati, sempati kavramlar na uzanarak bedensel benze meleri de a kl yor Sahibi sakatlan p topallay nca hi bir sorunlar olmad h lde topallayan k pekler sahipleri iyile ti i anda topallamay da b rak yor meselesinin a klamas burada K pekler hem muhte em body synchronizers hem de bundan zevk al yorlar Bu nedenle kimi zaman ip bile atl yorlar ocuklarla Keza, elini arpan birini g r nce onunla ayn ekilde k vranmam z vb 100 y l kadar nce empati kavram n geli tiren Alman psikolog Lipps bu durumu ip cambaz ile a kl yor Bir ip cambaz izlerken onun bedenine girmi gibi onunla hareket ederiz Ko u band nda ma izlemeye al t m zda ayaklar m z n birbirine dolanmas da bundan m acaba T m bunlar n sebebinin ayna n ronlar oldu unu ise 1990 larda anlad k ve biyoloji i in DNA in ke fi ne ise ayna n ronlar n ke fi psikoloji i in o imdi neden ener en ya da Kemal Sunal ile replikleri ezberden tekrar etti imizi anlayabiliriz te yandan, t m bunlar insanlardan ziyade maymunlarda ke fedilmi kavramlar hen z Primatlar sadece taklit etmiyor taklit edilmekten de keyif al yor Kapu inlere top verip oynamalar n istedi inizde biriniz yanlar nda durur izler di eri onlar n her hareketini taklit ederse mutlaka taklit iyle oynamay tercih ederlermi Bu da benzerlerimizi, bizimle uyumlu olanlar yan m za almam z , onlar desteklememizi, d llendirmemizi a klar belki de Bencilli in gerekli oldu u, bu sayede hayatta kal p do an n tepesine oturdu umuz gibi yerle ik alg lar, selfish genes gibi kavramlar ok k r ld diyor De Waal te yandan, empati kavram , izledi imiz birinin durumunu anlamam za olanak sa larken bu her ko ulda sempatiye d n m yor ve bir ba kas n nas l ac taca m z anlamam z olanakl k lan da yine empati Keza bu insanlarla da s n rl de il Maymunlar, s rf troll k olsun diye tavuklar yemle yanlar na ekip kar nlar na tel bat r p hayvanlar deh et i inde b rakarak onlar n ka mas n kahkahalarla izlerken empatiyi kullan yorlar Kar cinsi kand r rken, bir arabay satarken, kendimizi olmad m z biri gibi g sterirken asl nda empatiyi kullan yoruz Sald r rken de Empatiyi tan masak i kence edemezdik Son g nlerde havaalan nda ya anan olaya konu kad n n sosyal medya hesab nda g sterdi i kendi ile havaalan nda g sterdi i kendi hep empati kavram ile ili kili yani Memelilerde kad nlar n erkeklerden daha empatik olmas da annelik ile ili kili Empati deyip durdu um bu kavram n T rk esi de duyguda l km , ne g zel bir kelime Kitapta ok ilgin bir s r deneyden bahsediliyor Mesela mesle im gere i a ina oldu um akademik kongrelerde yap lan bir deneyle insanlar n duygular n n bula c l test edilmi Sahnede gergin bir ekilde sunum yapan konu mac lar n bu gerginli inin salona nas l yay ld dinleyicilerin topluca bir kaba t k rmesi ve buradan yap lan hormon l mleri ile test edilmi Evet, gergin birini g rd k m o gerginlik de bize bula yor, kesin bilgi O y zden good vibes only Ba s k k birine neden yard m ederiz leride o da bize eder, mant g tmedi imizi s yl yor De Waal ve farelerde dahi bu davran n g zlemlendi ini anlat yor Kas tl olarak bir kaba s k t r lan fareye di er fare kapa a arak yard m ediyor Hem de bu kendisine retilmedi i h lde hem de yan na bir de favori yiyece i b rak ld nda bile nce kurtar yor sonra yiyor Bu evrimsel bir ey, hepimizin ya am n kolayla t ran, ok eski zamanlarda renilmi bir ey Herhangi bir anda herhangi birinin yard m na ihtiya duyabiliriz imdi can al c noktaya geliyoruz nsan ve maymun yavrular nda yap lan deneyler g steriyor ki ba s k k, eli dolu vb bir ya l ya kar l ks z yard m etmek ortak bir davran E er burada devreye d l mekanizmas n sokarsan z davran n do as n bozuyorsunuz Misal, normal artlarda bir kar l k beklemeden s rekli pati veren k pek, di er k pe e pati verdi i i in bir ey verildi ini mesela mama g rd nde o da mama almadan pati vermiyor art k Bu bir yandan kazanmay retirken, k r maksimize ederken bir yandan da zevki ld rebilir Belki kapitalizmin yapt da bu Hatta belki bu ekilde, puan bilgisayar m hendisli ine yetti i i in asl nda iktisat olmak istedi i h lde m hendis olanlar toplumunu da anlayabiliriz Ba ka eyleri de anlar z da neyse Ya murda s r ls klam slanmakta olan iki empanze kendilerine kafesin kap s n a an profes re te ekk r etmek i in nce ya mur alt nda ona sar l p sonra kafese ge iyorlar, ko arak kafese girmiyorlar Bu hem hocan n i eri girmeyece ini, giremeyece ini bildiklerini g sterdi i gibi hem de te ekk re ne kadar nem verdiklerini, bunun toplumsal i levini kavrad klar n g steriyor San r m Wounda n n Jane Goodall a sar lmay nce unutup sonra geri d n p pi manl k i inde sar ld videoyu izleyenler vard r De Waal de ona at f yap yor Yeri gelmi ken, ben bu i leri merak etmeye ve bilimi sevmeye ocuklukta Marie Curie, 20 30 aras Jane Goodall ile bula t m Jane Goodall da bu vesileyle anm ve ona tapt m belirtmi olay m.Objelere de er atama konusunda da primatlar birbirine benziyor Bali de tap nak yak nlar nda maymunlar turistlerin e yalar n ald klar nda hangi e yay hangi yiyecekle takas edeceklerini de biliyorlar Dolay s yla, cep telefonunu kapt rd ysan z bir paket krakerden a a s kurtarm yor Ve maymunlar e yalar n z al p ka m yor, onlar oyuncak yapm yor kesinlikle Eri emeyece iniz bir yere ge ip sizinle pazarl k ediyor nk elinde rehine var.Su luluk duygusunun her zaman samimi olmad , s kl kla korku ve gruptan d lanma korkusu nedeniyle su lu hissediyor gibi davrand m z belirtiyor De Waal Durum t m primatlar i in ge erli, hepimiz timsah g zya d kebiliyoruz Su umuz nedeniyle di erlerinin bizi sevmeyece inden korktu umuzda su luluk duyuyor gibi g stermeye al abiliyoruz.Kitaptaki ilgin bilgilerden biri de alfa kavram ile ilgili 1940 larda kurtlarla ilgili al malardan t reyen bu kavram, genellikle bir grup i inde tepe konumdaki erkek yeyi tan mlamak i in kullan l yor Politikada s kl kla herkesi devirip tepeyi ele ge iren, zorba, kuzular i inde bir aslan gibi tan mlansa da De Waal bu tip zorba alfalar n asl nda ne insanlarda ne de maymunlarda uzun s re tepede kalabildi ini vurguluyor Ac mas z tiranlar bazen tepeye t rmansa da ve bunlar kimi zaman en iri, en g l tipler olsa da bunlar n sonu s kl kla felaket oluyor ve hem devrilip hem de parampar a ediliyorlar S kl kla ise alfalar i ini bilen tiplerden k yor Koalisyon kurabilen, do ru yard mc lar se ebilen, aray bulan, yat t ran ok nemli oldu unu d nd m bir bilgi Bir topluluk i inde stres seviyesi en y ksek olanlar hiyerar ik olarak en alttakiler Bu zavall lar ne sex yapabiliyor ne d zg n besleniyor Ayr ca it gibi de al yorlar En stresli ikinci grup ise alfalar Stres seviyeleri de en alttakilere ok yak n Yiyor ama a z n n tad yok Yani, yine orta yolculuk kazan yor De Waal, u ok laf edilen ama hakk nda pek az ey bilinen maymundan gelme meselesine de de iniyor Bilimsel olarak nereden geldi imiz kesin de il Muhtemelen insanlarla hominidlerin bug n kay p olan ortak atas ya empanzeye ya bonoboya ya orangutana ya da bir ba ka eye benziyordu ama bunu bilmiyoruz.Laf a lm ken bonobolardan da bahsedelim Bunlar n sava ma sevi kafas nda olduklar n tekrar vurgulayan De Waal, ilgin bir deneyden bahsediyor Kongo da k sa bir s re nce iki ayr bonobo toplulu unu bir araya getirip sosyalle tirmeyi deniyorlar Bunu empanzelerde denerseniz ortal k kan g l ne d ner, diyor De Waal Bonobolar ise grup seksi tercih etmi Bonobolarla empanzeler aras ndaki fark zenofobik ve zenofilik olarak kavramsalla t r yor Yabanc lardan korkan ve onlardan nefret eden vs yabanc lardan ho lanan Bunun sebebi ise iki t r n beyin evrimleri aras ndaki farkl l k Ba kalar n n rahats zl n alg lamaya imk n veren amigdala ve cerebral cortex i indeki deep k s mlar bonobolarda daha b y k ve bonobolar agresif davran lar kontrol etmede de daha ba ar l bir beyne sahip Biz de dahil do adaki en empatik canl bonobolar olabilir, diyor De Waal ve empati seviyesi artt k a beden kullanarak yat t rma da art yor te bunlar hep seks Bili ile duyguyu iki u olarak s n fland rmak yanl , diyor De Waal Duygular n z sizi ele ge iremez, buna siz izin verirsiniz Dolay s yla, ak l ve duygu birlikte hareket eder S kl kla d n ld gibi, biri insan di eri hayvansal de ildir.Hayvanlar hazz erteleyebilir mi Yan t evet Nas l ki k k ocuklara bir eker verip bunu yemezse kendisine bir tane daha verilece ini s yledi imizde ocuklar kendilerini 18 dakikaya kadar tutabiliyorsa ayn n maymunlar da yapabiliyor S re de ayn Keza, yavrusu iste i d nda elinden al nan bir di i maymun, yavruyu al p annelik oynayan ergen di iyi kendisi ile ilgilenmiyor gibi yaparak izliyor ve yavrusu g venli bir yere b rak ld nda yavrusunu tehlikeye sokan gen k z ok affedersiniz s t yere kadar kovalay p patakl yor Aksi durumda, panikleyen ergen yavruyu d rebilir T m bunlar , free will yani zg r irade, ironik bir ekilde, insanlar n kurallar izlemesi i in gereklidir kar m na ba l yor De Waal ve g d lerimizi ne insan olarak ne hayvan olarak sorgusuzca takip etti imize lgin bir bilgi Az sonra kendisine d k dozda elektrik verilece ini ve bunun can n yakaca n bilen ki ilerin beyninin ilgili b lgesinde bir panik belirtisi olu uyor Elektri i verirken beyni de scan ediyorlar zaten beynin ilgili b lgesini ve pani in iddetini g rmek i in E er bu ki inin e i kad n elini tutarsa panik hafifliyor E ler g ndelik hayatlar nda ne kadar iyi anla an, birbirlerine ne kadar ba l bireylerse panik o denli ok d yor Yine de, e olmasa da bu tip durumlarda elimi tut denmesinin bir mant oldu u a k.Bir ba ka ilgin bilgi E lerin, partnerlerin elbiselerini giymek Kad nlar, e ya da sevgililerinin t shirt ya da g mleklerini giydiklerinde stres seviyeleri d yor T m bunlar, yaln zl n iyi bir ey olmad n da do rular nitelikte Bizler sosyal varl klar z ve sevdiklerimize ihtiyac m z var N ron say m z da ok abartmay n, fillerin daha ok n ronu var.Geldik en can al c k sma Hayvanlar yiyelim mi Yan t vereyim hemen Yemeyin arkada lar Memelileri asla yemeyin lla yiyecekseniz az yiyin Et yemeyi b rakan gen lere ok sayg duydu unu belirten De Waal kendisinin de en az ndan memeli hayvanlar asla yemedi ini belirtiyor Gelelim detaylara yani neden yememeli sorusunun yan tlar na Bir kere, evvelce de de inildi i gibi, bu arkada lar l m n kesinli ini anl yorlar Bir danay al p kesti inizde o danan n en iyi arkada evet kanka kavram onlarda da var z l yor hem de ok z l yor Yavrusunu vs s ylemiyorum bile D nyada u an vah i ya ama konu hayvanlar t m pop lasyonun sadece %3 biz %25 iz insanlar olarak ve geri kalanlar da inanmas zor ama end striyel hayvanc l a konu hayvanlar nan l r gibi de il ama yle nsan olarak evrimimizin ge mi inde et yememiz artt ve iyi bir eydi Bug nk zekam za b yle kavu tuk ama bundan sonra yemesek geri gitmeyece iz korkmay n Hayvansal protein abart l yor, diyor De Waal Bilim ilerledi, farkl bir d nemde ya yoruz ve buna uygun davranmal y z Bu ba lamda De Waal En az ndan azalt n ya da yar vejetaryen olun, diyor Burada yle bir s n flama yap yor De Waal Memeli, merkez sinir sistemi olan canl lar yemeyin M mk nse merkez sinir sistemi olmayan ama ac y hisseden ve ac n n gelece ini ng rebilen canl lar da yemeyin Misal, yenge ler g r p karanl k k elere ka t klar nda bu k elerde kendilerine elektrik oku verildi inde bir daha oralara ka m yor Bu da canlar n n yand n g steriyor Midye, karides filan ac hissetmiyor olabilir ama bunlar yakalamak i in izlenen yol bir s r deniz canl s n n l m ne yol a yor Bitkilerde ise her ne kadar hayatta kalma i g d s olsa da merkez bir sinir sistemi ve ac alg s s z konusu de il O nedenle, et yemedi inizi s yledi inizde biri size E ama bitkinin can yok mu gibi bir kar l k verdi inde De Waal e at f yaparak Gider misin diyebilirsiniz Bitkinin can var elbette ama yanm yor ve bir salatal yedi imizde di erleri onun yoklu unu fark edip onu zlemiyor ya da Yar n da beni yiyecekler, diyerek stres olmuyor Bitkiler evreye son derece adaptif tepkiler verebilir ama bir beyinleri olmad ndan sezgileri de yok ac y hissetme kabiliyetleri de.Hayvanlar ak l y r tebilir mi Yani, inference hayvanlarda da var m Chrysippus s Dog meselesine giriyor De Waal burada E er 3 yol a z na gelen bir k pek ilk ikisini koklay p arad n n bunlardan ge medi ini anlad ktan sonra nc y koklamadan yol belliyorsa bu bize k pe in ak l y r tt n g sterir Yani, mant k y r tmek i in dile ihtiyac m z filan yok ve bu bize zg bir zellik, bir ayr cal k falan de il Bir odada Sarah isimli empanzeye bak c s , iki ayr kutuya bir elma ve bir muz koydu unu g steriyor Sarah ba ka bir yere bakarken bak c cebinden bir muz ya da bir elma kar p yemeye ba l yor Sonra odadan k yor Sarah, bak c n n yedi i meyvenin kutudan al nd n g rmedi i h lde her seferinde di er meyvenin oldu u kutuya gidip onu al yor ve di er kutudaki meyvenin bak c n n yedi i meyve oldu unu d n yor Ben ise len ne yedi imi bilmiyorum Gelelim bal klara Bal klarda cerebral cortex yok Bu y zden oltaya tak ld klar nda vb ac ekemeyeceklerini iddia ediyor zellikle bal k l k end strisi ve ilgili di er irketler vb Lakin bu do ru de il, bal klar ac y feci ekilde hissediyorlar De Waal in iki de dev akvaryumu var evinde ve ok ilgin bir deneyimini yazm bu kitapta Bal k gillerden bir ku akvaryumuna dadan nca De Waal b y k bir a ekmi akvaryumun zerine Ku bir daha gelmemi ama bal klardan biri a a tak lm De Waal a keserek bal n kurtarm ama di er bal klar bir hafta, a a yakalanan ise bir ay toparlayamam e kapanm bal klar, yeme bile gelmemi ler lgin olan ise di er akvaryumdaki bal klar n da ayn tepkiyi vermesi De Waal, a m z n en nemli pozitivist bilim insanlar ndan biri olarak, Lan nas l olur, diye epey d nm Sonra fark etmi ki iki akvaryumun su temizleme pompas ortak ve su kanal yla iletilen herhangi bir kimyasal iki tarafa da ge iyor Yani bal n panik salg s suya yay larak di erlerini de uyar yor.Mecburen bitti

  5. says:

    Animal Emotions Early ethologists studied animal behavior to understand a shared motivation Their experimental setup was elegant and objective, but the underlying motivation for animal behavior was ignored For example, fear and anger, and the animal reactions to it were carefully examined and conclusions were drawn The prevailing assumption in these studies were that animals had instincts that gave inborn actions triggered by a situation Behavioral biologists have changed this approach because the instincts are inflexible, and they have started to look from the point of emotions which allow flexibility They prime body and mind, but do not dictate any specific course of actions Emotions are neither invisible nor impossible to study they can be measured Levels of biomolecules associated with emotional experiences, from the cuddle hormone oxytocin to the stress hormone cortisol, can easily be determined The hormones are virtually identical across the board from humans to birds to invertebrates.The artificial intelligence AI recognize the importance of emotions AI with emotions would interact with humans with empathy and human like emotions, and hopefully do not destroy mankind when they become too powerful It is expected to facilitate engagement and working together for common good In this book, the author, a well known primatologist proposes that animals experience emotions in the same way as humans do Emotions infuse everything that inspire cognition and drives all animals and humans By examining emotions, this book puts these vivid of mental experiences in evolutionary context, revealing how their richness, power and utility stretch across species and back into the history of animal kingdom.

  6. says:

    Educational, entertaining, enlightening, evidentiary de Waal is devoted to his subject both intellectually and emotionally, and once you ve read the book, you might believe as I do that that s the same fidelity It took me all of the book to grasp that emotions are not feelings, and it s taken the behaviorist, psychologist, biologist schools decades to sort it as well We and this we perhaps has an arrow pointed at American studies for the perpetuation of this misconception accept that animals are lower on the evolutionary ladder than the venerated us Humans talk And talk and talk Other sentient beings don t Not to us, which disqualifies them from apex status But then we aren t all that great at observing without being told what to see For this reason alone, I ve never been sure that homo sapiens earned its pedestal topping roost Fierce listening, as my friend says, is what we need Observation and listening are conjacent.de Waal sorts sentience into tiers, and you will be fascinated by the way he sticks this knowledge so you won t soon forget All the old saws about the reasons animals are so far below us don t hold water Or air either Do orangutans plan ahead Are chimpanzees empathetic Do dolphins remember Does a rat like being tickled Does a community of primates understand death How do battling chimps achieve accord Do alpha females seek revenge The answers are all here for those who wish to observe and listen This is a joyful book I wish you as pleasant an experience.

  7. says:

    I recently went to the zoo at the behest of a friend of mine I hadn t been to a proper zoo since I was a child and was reminded why I hadn t been in such a long time Animals in small enclosures, appearing listless with nothing to stimulate them, was for me the opposite of entertaining It was profoundly moving but not perhaps in the sense that my acquaintance might have wished Particularly disturbing to me was seeing the macaques, gorillas, chimpanzees, and other primates When my friend sensed that I was not happy to see them despite my love of bonobos and chimpanzees in particular, I explained how sad it was to see these profoundly social animals with intricate friendship and family bonds be isolated by themselves in a small cage In Mama s Last Hug , Frans De Waal doesn t go deeply into how zoos are problematic he does briefly touch on it but he does ask and defend the question as to whether primates in particular are capable of emotions If you ve read De Waal before you are probably familiar with his answer but here he uses his and others research as well as entertaining and fascinating anecdotes to answer that he believes they do He gives wonderful examples of a wide variety of facial expressions that correlate with our own our facial structures are remarkably similar , how primates feel and show shame, bargain amongst themselves and others he cites macaques at a temple of Bali who often steal particular items such as cell phones from tourists Rather than run away with them, the monkeys sit a safe distance away until the tourists hands over a sufficient amount of food, at which point the monkey will put down the valuables and walk away with its bounty In his perhaps most touching story, De Waal recounts the story of Mama, a female chimp who was the alpha female for decades at the colony De Waal supervised in Holland As she became sick and near death, one of the staff members who had been with her for years went into her cage to say goodbye a quite dangerous thing to do and one that he freely admitted later he would never do with any other chimp Mama on seeing and clearly remembering their relationship over the years, gave him a long hug as if to say goodbye that can been seen on Youtube highly recommended you have some kleenex handy Was she aware of her impending death Maybe Maybe not But even the most hardened cynic would have to admit that there was at a bare minimum recognition on her part and likely warmth that we as humans like to assign solely to ourselves Why do so many scientists still refuse to acknowledge that beings other than humans are capable of complex emotions Is it that it would complicate experimentation on them Make eating them extremely problematic We do not know for sure De Waal writes we cannot ask animals directly what they are feeling This is undoubtedly true And yet through simple observation it is increasingly difficult to deny they are feeling something intensely recognizable and universal to all living beings.

  8. says:

    I won this in a Goodreads giveaway What a wonderful book I enjoyed it and would highly recommend it

  9. says:

    I loved this book, although I found it very similar to another of Frans de Waal s books, Are We Smart Enough to Know How Smart Animals Are , which deals with animal intelligence while this one deals with emotions As the author points out, the two are intertwined Apparently the fact that other animals have feelings and emotions very similar to our own comes as a surprise to many people, including scientists I, like the author, think it s obvious that they do, as would anyone who had any kind of close relationship with a dog, horse, primate or bird The author gives solid evidence of sentience in fish, and the intelligence of octopuses is well documented So, while I enjoyed this book immensely, loved the anecdotes this seasoned primatologist colorfully presents, and found his views regarding our treatment of other living things logically flawless, the whole point of the book is, to me, blindingly obvious Unfortunately, this is evidently not true for much of the human race, which is very disturbing If it s because they lack the opportunity for close relationships with animals, perhaps reading this book will encourage us to get to know our fellow earthlings If it s just that many people are numb nuts and lack what we cavalierly term humanity, the only answer is for our society as a whole to change its attitude and customs, so that mistreatment of animals will be unacceptable, even if certain cretins don t get it.

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